By understanding who your audience is, you can tailor content to meet their specific needs, making your message more engaging and relevant. This targeted approach not only boosts conversion rates but also ensures more efficient use of marketing resources, focusing efforts where they are most likely to yield results.

You can do so with the steps below. Also, be sure to use the worksheet to help with your research.

Define Your Client's Target Audience

When you are writing copy, you are writing to a specific group of people. This has been referred to as “your one reader”, “one true fan”, or “dream customer.”

Remember: you are writing text that could be viewed by a million different people, but it gets read one person at a time. It’s important you know who you’re writing to.

You’ve most likely heard the term “avatar” which refers to the perfect representation of your ideal customer.


“I need to better understand my customer to understand how they see themselves, and therefore the role my product plays in their life. Given that my ideal customer has the job title of [add this here if you’re B2B] and the demographics of [describe your dream customer], with additional life or business information of [add more information about who they are], act as them and tell me about yourself. Introduce yourself, describe your biggest problems, describe your biggest goals. These should be facts about decisions that people like you also make. As well as this, give me 5 statistics (quoting the sources) that would entice this customer to buy my product.”


The three desires (in no particular order) are health, wealth, and relationships. When people purchase any product from anyone, they’re hoping to get a certain result in one of these three areas of their lives.

The first question you need to answer is this:

Which of these three desires is my future dream customer trying to receive when they buy my product or service? This is the first layer to getting inside the mind of your dream customer, and for most people the answer is pretty simple. However, sometimes people get stuck on this question for one of two reasons.

Reason #1 — Your product fits into more than one of these desires:

Many products can be marketed toward getting a result in more than one of these desires, but your marketing message can only focus on one of them. To target two different desires, you need two different ads leading to two different funnels. Only focus on one desire with each message you put into the market.

Reason #2 — Your product doesn’t fit into any of these desires.

Most products can fit into multiple categories, even if they may look as if they don’t fit into any category at all, but no matter what, the key is that your marketing message can and must be focused on only one of the 3 Core Desires.


For this exercise, write down at least a dozen things that your potential future customers are saying or thinking as they’re trying to move away from pain. I’m always looking for the questions and statements that people in my market are saying as they try to move out of their pain.

Moving Toward Pleasure: The second direction that people can be moving in is toward pleasure. They don’t have a desire for health, wealth, or relationships because they are unhappy; they have a desire because they are happy and looking for more. Let me show you a few examples of moving toward pleasure for each desire.

Write down at least a dozen phrases that people in your client's market who are moving toward pleasure may have running on their head.


  • I want to get six-pack abs.

  • I want to be able to run a marathon.
  • I want to eat healthier so I can get more energy.

Wealth (moving toward pleasure):

  • I want to buy my dream house or dream car.
  • I want to grow my company so I can have more impact.
  • I want to learn leadership so I can grow my team.

Relationships (moving toward pleasure):

  • I want more passion in my relationships.
  • I want to spend more time with my spouse and kids.
  • I want to meet more people through networking.

Assessing Customer Awareness

Determine the Reader’s Current Awareness Level regarding your client's product or service. Adjust your messaging to meet the reader at their current stage of awareness about your product or service.

Determine the Reader’s Product Category Familiarity. Adapt your sales message according to the reader's familiarity with the product category, ensuring the content is accessible and engaging at the right level of complexity.

Determine the Reader's Stage of Attention. Target your sales message to match the reader's specific stage of awareness, from curiosity to readiness to purchase.

Strategically build trust from the ground up, assuming that the audience is encountering your message for the first time.

Research Methods

Become educated about the questions people who are potentially in your target niche are asking. Then, use these questions to create content, headlines, social media content, sales letters, and other material.

Let's explore an example with how to do it in Real Estate Flipping.

Popular Products

This is like “funnel hacking” or “audience hacking”. What do you look at in an existing product?

  • If it’s a book, look at the table of contents.
  • Look at the chapters and see what they are about.
  • Look at the index for keywords, terms, or maybe things you never thought about.
  • You can look at sales copy for offers on people’s funnels and websites.
  • You can also look at feedback because that will show you how the market responds.
  • The five stars on Amazon will say, “this is awesome”.
  • Look at the one stars to see what people are complaining about.

Looking at this information gives you real insight into what people want:

  • They’re looking for meat.
  • They’re looking for answers to their questions.
  • They’re looking for value.
  • They’re looking for step-by-step information.
  • They’re looking for content.

What these come down to and what you need to focus on in your copy is what people really want.

Social Media

Another way is to just ask people on Facebook a question. Personally, I think this is one of the smartest things that you can do.

  • Ask in a group.
  • Ask on a page.
  • Ask on your profile page.

People will tell you their concerns, questions, and roadblocks. A fun way to get people to answer questions is to use a little meme as part of your post on social media to attract attention.

You can also analyze comments on social media and blogs to gather feedback that sheds light on public perceptions and engagement with your brand. 

Avoid oversimplifying or deviating from your audience's original language. Authentic diction can significantly enhance the connection and persuasive power of your sales page.

Your Client's Help Desk

If you don’t have one, you should if you’re selling anything to anyone. Your help desk is a great place to look for the problems, questions, and roadblocks. You can get million-dollar product ideas out of your help desk.

  • You see trends as well as specific questions.
  • You may notice that five people had the same issue in the last two weeks. If so, you have a new product idea.

Could you provide access to your support ticket system, or could you share relevant data extracts with us? This information is critical for us to tailor our copy effectively to your needs.

Answer Sites like Quora and

Sites like these are great places to look for questions people ask, especially if you’re not in the market to teach people the latest and greatest techniques for selling stuff on Instagram.

Analyze Customer Feedback

Amazon reviews are a rich source of direct feedback. Read across the spectrum:

  • Five-star reviews to understand what excites customers.
  • Two to four-star reviews often provide the most balanced insights into what's missing and what could be improved.
  • One-star reviews to learn what disappoints or angers them.

Funnel Hacking

Observe and analyze what is already working in your market. This isn't about copying but about understanding successful strategies and adapting their essence to your unique context.

Look at how similar products or services are marketed. Analyze the sales copy, the structure of the offers, and the promises made.


Forums are still alive and well on the worldwide web. Don’t discount or ignore finding forums with specific members of your target audience.

  • Mine these for problems, questions, roadblocks, and the results they seek.

Delve into forums like Product Hunt and Hacker News to gather insights on user preferences and criticisms, refining your value proposition and messaging accordingly.

Keyword and Trend Analysis

Use Google and other SEO tools to understand what potential customers are searching for, the language they use, and the content they consume.

  • Search for your keyword, plus the word FAQ, mistakes, questions, or top 10.
  • You will get a ton of information that can help you.
  • Look at the top results to see what questions people ask.


Go to and type in “real estate flipping” and hit enter. You will see the questions people are asking like:

  • Is real estate flipping profitable?
  • What is real estate flipping?
  • Does real estate flipping still make sense?
  • How do I get started at real estate flipping with no money down?
  • How do I stay motivated?
  • Are there people that do this internationally?
  • How do I attract new partners?
  • How do you start as an investment vehicle?
  • Is it possible in another country?
  • What’s the ultimate guide?
  • Where is the best place to learn about this?
  • How do you locate investors?


Voice of the Customer Surveys

#1. Craft effective survey questions. The design of the survey is paramount. By ensuring the questions are direct and encompass various aspects related to your audience's needs and expectations, we can gather data that is both rich and actionable.

We are often members of our target audience either currently or in the past.

  • What are your problems?
  • What are your questions?
  • What are your roadblocks?
  • What are the results you desire?

#2. Choose an appropriate survey platform. Opt for a user-friendly survey tool like Survicate.

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Get instant insights without manual analysis:

  • AI automatically groups and summarizes survey responses
  • Quickly identify feedback topics without reviewing each response
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Transform ideas into surveys swiftly with AI:

  • Generate ready-to-launch surveys in 25 seconds by describing your goal
  • AI selects the appropriate question types for you
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  • Let AI create custom surveys from any idea you have

Discover your ideal survey template instantly:

  • AI suggests the best template for your specific use case
  • Receive tailored survey template suggestions based on your role and objectives
  • Accelerate feedback collection with customizable templates crafted by experts
  • Ask precise questions, even if you're new to surveying

#3. Share the survey through the most effective channels for reaching your target audience. We will identify and utilize the channels – be it email, social media, or your website – where your target audience is most active and receptive.

#4. Export, categorize, and analyze survey data to identify key themes and insights. This step involves a detailed look at individual feedback to categorize them by pertinent themes or concerns, facilitating a more targeted approach in subsequent strategic developments.

#5. Refine strategies based on VoC data. Use the insights from the surveys to enhance your products, services, and marketing strategies, thereby better meeting audience needs.

To proceed with the survey analysis and strategic application of insights, we'll need your confirmation on the survey questions and the preferred distribution channels. Additionally, please let us know if there are specific segments of your audience you're particularly interested in hearing more from.

Recording and Transcribing

To elevate our content creation and research methodologies, we are incorporating advanced recording and transcription practices. This will allow us to capture spontaneous ideas, facilitate in-depth research, and support business development more effectively.

#1: Select an appropriate recording tool for capturing thoughts and conversations.This initial step ensures that all valuable input, whether from brainstorming sessions, client interactions, or personal reflections, is recorded and available for further analysis.

#2: Develop a consistent recording practice. Establish a regular habit of recording, while ensuring transparency and obtaining consent from all participants, to maintain ethical standards and build trust.

#3: Organize and label recordings efficiently. Implement a system for labeling recordings that reflects their content and context, making them easy to organize and reference in the future.

#4: Transcribe these recordings. Convert recordings into text.

Given the wealth of insights we're capturing, working with a transcription service could greatly enhance our efficiency. Would you be open to integrating a professional transcription service like into our process?

#5: Conduct detailed reviews of transcriptions. This involves highlighting significant sections or using tools to emphasize aspects that align with research objectives or that could inform content creation. The review process ensures that no valuable insight goes unnoticed, contributing to a more informed strategy and compelling content.

#6: Integrate transcription insights with research findings. Merge the insights from transcriptions with other research data to form a comprehensive understanding that enhances project outcomes and supports robust content development.

Organization and Tagging

Prepare all research materials beforehand using a mise en place approach. Ensure all necessary information is pre-organized for a smoother writing process, allowing for thorough and well-supported arguments on the sales page.

Tag every piece of research with relevant keywords for easy access. Proper organization of research aids in structuring content effectively and maintaining cohesive messaging throughout the page.

Ensure all information is organized and accessible for efficient utilization in crafting tailored messages.

You can use a chart similar to the one below:

Consider creating separate tabs for extensive data. For projects with large volumes of information, compartmentalizing data simplifies management and focuses on each segment of the argument.

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